International Symposium on
Drylands Ecology and Human Security

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Water Resources of Georgia and
Modeling of Water Pollution in Dry Regions of Georgia

Teimuraz Davitashvili

I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics of Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
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The geographic location of Georgia, its complex orographic and circulation conditions specify the diversity of its climate. Here form almost all types of climate existing on the Earth beginning from mountainous zone of Caucasus with constant snow and glacier, ending with wet subtropical climate of the Black Sea and continental dry climate of the Eastern Georgia. That is way water resources are distributed non-homogenous on the territory of Georgia. There are some regions with plenty of water resources (ground water is also abundant and generally of high quality.) and some areas which are generally characterized by arid conditions.
The scientific-technical progress accelerates the manufacturing forces, transport means and energetic powerful development. The last one on the other hand causes the improving of everyday living conditions of a human, but on the other hand it can cause the pollution of the environment at the highest extent. In fact one observe that a great number of industrial, transport and energetic industry wastes occur in the environment and a great amount of those wastes contaminate  the surface water, such as rivers, lakes and ponds.
The contamination of rivers can be caused not only by industrial wastes, but by means of washing away the organic fertilizers, the fecal masses and the contaminating substances resulting from the transport crashes occurring in the Georgia, into the rivers.
Major pollutants entering the country’s water bodies are oil products, nitrous ammonia, organic substances, heavy metal ions. Major contributions are the factories, oil transporting means, chemical industry and energy sector. Nitrogen compounds, organic substances and suspended particulate matter are entering water bodies through communal sewers (for instance, ammonia 8 t/y, organic substances – 8370 t/y, suspended particulate 9.28 th. t/y.) In addition, Georgia’s rivers are heavily polluted as a result of diffuse agricultural sources of pollution. This is the reason that the pollution by pesticides and nitrogen compounds exceed permissible levels in almost every water body.
In the present work we have investigated water resources of the South Caucasus rivers and especially the hydrological specifications of Georgian rivers. By Numerical model we have calculated Georgian the largest rivers Mtkvari’s and Rioni’s possible pollution by oil. Investigations show that the river Rioni is frequently polluted by spilling petroleum, diesel fuel or black oil and a great part of these are brought to the Black Sea, which gets polluted as well. If there happens an accident 4 km far from the sea, 70% of spilled petroleum gets into the sea in 20-25 minutes, which is too short period for its prevention. Municipal water supply system for urban areas and rural drinking water supply and its monitoring are presented. With the purpose of to study under ground water pollution by oil, oil penetration into soil with flat surface containing pits and slopping surface for urban and dry rural areas are studied by numerical modeling.